Sunday, 25 February 2018

Disom Level Administration


Disom is the top most unit embracing 5 to 10 pirs. Desh Pargana is the head of Disom. He is also elected personnel and elected by the Pir Parganas once in every five years. The cases of disputes which are not decided in Pir level are brought to the notice of desh Pargana and Pargana decides the cases with the consultation of Pir Parganas and Manjhi.
Desh pargana is vested with the power to impose upon the accused both physical and monetary punishment and in case of drastic social offence like bitlaha. (Woman having sexual relationship with other caste. ) the accused is banished from the society. Desh Pargana has got a power to nominate some more parganas who can assist him in maintenance of law and order in the Disom. They are called as Ghat pargana. The word ghat comes from the word ghaty. which means danger place. In the Disom there are some ghats where huge gathering of people takes place every year. In such places , there is a possibility of breach of law and order. The duties of Ghat Parganas are to maintain the law and order in the ghats. Among the Ghats, one is river ghat where immersion of bone flower of deceased take place every year in the month of January and another ghat is the place where Jatra Patta ( dancing festival) takes place for days together. For one ghat there is one pargana . He makes a temporary office in the ghat during the occasion. This office acts as a Mobile Court .
Pargana has got power to punish a man immediately if he is found to be guilty in the occasion. He has also power to debar a person from immersion of bone flower of his kid and kin if his village panchait brings some allegation against him.
Desh pargana has no such remuneration. He gets some percentage of money collected as punishment from the accused and the rest is divided among the pargana and public.

Pir Pargana | Pir Dihiri

Pir Pargana :

When 50-60 villages consists together a ‘Pir’ is formed, it is upper unit of group of village. Pargana is the head of pir. This is why he is called as Pir Pargana. He is a elected personnel of the pir. He is elected by the majhi of the belonging villages , once in every five years.
He is a adminstrative head of the pir. Undecided village level disputes, disputes among the villagers of different villages , Public grievances on drastic social offence , are brought to the notice to the pir pargana and pargana decides the case with the consultation of majhi of other villages. The accused are punished. Pir Pargana is vested with the power to impose only monetary punishment on the accused.
Pargana has no such salary. Sometime he gets some portion of the money collected as punishment from the accused as  to bear few expenses of his and the rest is divided among the manjhi and villager . The  money is very less in comparison to his service. The honor he receives from the public as Pir Pargana is the only pride of his service. He too lives common life like other villagers.

Pir Dihiri :

Dihiri is nominated person of the ‘Pir’. He is responsible for the welfare of the people living in the ‘Pir’. He worships God and Goddess of local hills who seem to be responsible for causing rain and warding off the epidemic.  He has to responsibility to act as priest during Jantal Festival.
Dihiri has no such remuneration. Only in the eve of festive occasions, he and his family members collect rice, salt, oil, vegetable from the villagers as festive food.

Composition of Santal Atu: Village

Every village big or small comprises of following establishment, without which a santal village cannot be imagined of:

Every village has a place of worship called jahergarh. It is actually a small patch of forest mainly consist of sal trees. At the centre of the jaher under the sal tree a shade is made which is known as jaherthan.InJaher than Marang Buru, Jaher Ayo, Maneka and Turika are worshipped. Other then these God and GodessSimasalebonga are also worshiped at separate place inside Jaher. Jaher is believed to be the dwelling place of Gods therefore it is considered sacred. Except during festivals, womens are not allowed inside Jaher premises.

Gosane is a small hut built in front of the residence of the Majhi. It is built the day the village was set up. The word Gosane has come from the word Gosain, this word is used in honour of Majhi. After the death of Majhi a stone is placed inside the hut in his memory. No of stones inside the hut tells us about the age of the village. Gosane is a sacred place so it is kept neat and clean by spouse of the Majhi. Every morning it is polished with cowdung and its roof is changed once in a year during Baha festival by the family members of the Majhi family.

It is a open space in the middle of the village where villagers could gather during meeting. All the meetings and important decision are taken in the DharamAkhra after consolting village elders.

Marghaty is a burial ground of the village. It is located at the outskirt of the village. It is restricted area and villagers avoid this place.

For better administration a santal area is divided into following units.

Hor Dhorom : How religion to Santal is different

The name of the religion of santals is SARNA. No Binty or folk lore says about the founder of the religion or the actual time periods of its origin. But the rites, rituals, formalities handed down from ancestor to ancestors over the ages in the name of religion which give some clear indication that the Sarnaism is very  old religion of the world and older than the other religions of India.

When did the conception of religion came to mankind is very difficult to say but some idea about its etiology, we may have, if we analyze the meaning of Dhorom which is Santali term of religion. The word Dhorom originates from the words DOHA and URUM. Doha means”Duh daha reyah har” i.e. the path of self protection and urum means to recognize or understand. So the religion as per the santal is well recognized experimented path through which one can achieve self protection or self purification. If this be the meaning of dharma. One can say that the conception of dharma i.e. religion to mankind is as old as man himself. It is revealed from Darwin theory of evolution of human being either the fact that every creature on this earth has to struggle hard with the other for its existence and so the human.

History says “when man took his origin in this earth there was thick forest around him and in the forest there were different kinds of animals,nmany of whom were far more superior to man in shape, size and strength. But man was able to subdue them all and befitted the condition of his survival. This was possible only when man came to know how to protect himself. In order to do so, man chose the cave, a confined place (now home) as his shelter and se fire in front of the cave by which he was able to save himself from the attack of other animals and then he attacked them according to his convenience. He used the different weapons in different time as the attacking device. First, he used the weapon made of stone, then the weapon made of wood (bow and arrow) and  then weapon made of metal (axe, showed). With these weapon the man was able to attack the animals safely and successfully. Thus the man was able to establish his existence the means of self protection was the first and foremost device.
So, as per the santals Dhorom (religion) is first and foremost essential part of life. So to say it is a part and parcel of life without which no existence of life can be dreamt of. So Sarnaism is no doubt as old as man himself. This is as per the analysis  of the word Dhorom. If we analyse the meaning of Sarna itself, we may also come to the same conclusion. The word Sarna means forest. So the association of man with the forest is as old as man himself.

Santal Pargana : A Turn in Santal Community

After leaving champa gar dishom, the Santals again engaged themselves in search of plain and fertile land and came to  Gangra Beda i.e Gang Gara Beda (ganga river valley). It was also a plain and fertile land, so they settled immediately. But they could not stay for longer time ,because the dikus came again. By that time Dikus had become more powerful than Santals. And as peace loving community did not want to involve itself into war with them.So they did not resist them because of which they had to move further towards the south following the down stream valley of river Ganga and ultimately they reached Chutia Nagar i.e. Chota Nagpur plateau. In this way the Santals were totally driven out from the valley of river Ganga. So no Binty says regarding the establishment of any kind of civilization in the Gang gara Beda, rather it says the condition of santals was very very measurable there, because where ever the santals cleared up the Jungles for their inhabitation and cultivation the dikus came in. So they could not get any chance to settledown properly and permanently.

Therefore their economic condition became very wretched. Binty says “when the Santals reached the chotanagpur plateau, they had no food to eat. Only they had their lives with them (sutuh sumung jiwi).  The chotanagpur plateau was not a plain land. It was full of high hills all around. The santals settled down here and there where ever some what plain and cultivable lands were available in between hills or at the down of the hills. Anyway, by will of their hard labor, they managed to convert the ups and downs of the land into the cultivable plain land and produced different crops. This land is nothing but Santal pargana area of today situated in Jharkhand.

Life of the Santal in Chhotanagpur plateau was quite different from Sasang Beda and Champa Garh Disom.
In Sansang beda and champa garh disom. Most of the people were living in garh. i.e nagar or town. They were ruled by their own king kishu rapaj. But  Chota Nagpur platuea, almost all the people lived the at village. The word ‘atu’ derived from the ‘ot’ which means holding capacity of an area. As the plateau was up and down with high hills all around the people did not get suitable lands at stretch for their habitation and cultivation, as a result of which they were bound to live here and there according to the holding capacity of an area. i.e Cultivable land available . Thus they started living in Atu i.e village, when the holding capacity of an atu became inadequate in comparison to the distance from the other so they lived there. In this way the Santal  made different village in different places. Under the circumstance their way of life and mode of administration took a new turn. Instead of feudalism, they adopted democratic socialism . Every village was taken as an unit and its administration was vested upon Majhi, Parnik, jog Majhi, Naike who were the elected personnel of the village.

Binty says, with the new social setup, the santals lived in Chotanagpur plateau i.e santal pargana very happily for many years, After the British came to India and penetrated in to the plateau to explore the minerals, their peaceful happy life got disturbed . Dikus (outsiders) again got the way to come in. They established themselves as Thika dar, Jagirda and Jamindar under the sadhow of British Government and exploited the santal people very much. Then santal people out of anger revolted against the British Government . Santals untiy led by Baba Tika Majhi in the year 1784 and santal revolution led by SIdo kanhu in the year 1855 were the main . From there revolution , then might British Govt. got to realize the consciousness and power of santals , and in order to suppress them forever seized to fire many santal villages causing the heavy loss of life and wealth .Later on few Santals migrated to different place. In this way the santals people spread from santal pargana area to other parts of the chotonagpur plateau. Now they are seen living hilly region of Bihar Bengal and Orissa M.P within the same range of Chotanagpur Plateau.

Champa Garh

While migrating towards east in search of plain and fertile land, they came across a land which is surrounded by five rivers so they named it Champagarh. Champa in santal means five and Gara means river.

Sansang Beda: The Valley of Santal Civilisation

There is a very common song in Santals that:
Aba manmika santal manmika
Hihiri Pipiri Janam lena
Khoj Kaman reban khoj lenaho
Sasang beda reban jati lena

The meaning of song as follows-
We the people took the birth in Hihiri Pipiri
And grew in Harata forest
We were tought a lesson in khoj Kaman
We were devided in sept(group) in sasang beda.

So, Sasang Beda being a sacred place in the history of Santal is an important historical place to them. The word “Sasnat” which means civilization is derived from the name Sasang, where the Santali civilization had taken place long ago.

Santal people observed a great change themselves while living in Sasang Beda:
To keep the human relationship in track for all times to come they were divided in to twelve groups i.e. Sept or Clan such as 1. Hansda 2. Murmu 3. Hembrom 4.Tudu 5. Soren 6.Baskey 7.Beshra 8. Kisku 9. Mardi 10. Chone 11. Dankar 12. Gandwar

Each group was treated as one family and who ever hailed in that family were treated as brother and sister and the marriage among them was restricted. Thus the human relationship arising out of marriage became systematic and holy one.