Thursday, 20 August 2015

Traditional Musical Instrument in Santals





The Tamak, Tumdak, Tiriyo and Banam are the major musical instruments which play important role in conveying messages in Santal society.

The beats of the Tamak and tumdak call the Santal people to gather. Whether it may be any gathering, Social, Cultural or political gathering are marked by these two drums for virility, vitality and vigor for unity among them. Which expresses the importance of gathering.  The loud and deep sound progressing out of the drum at once attracts the Santal even from distant places.


Once the sound is heard , People from different area now come to know about some ceremonies being organized or to be organized  , which often calls for some resolution has to be taken on important matter , or to gather the people and let them know about something serious incident have happened .
Without accompaniment of these drum, No Santal gathering will take place. This is how their life is connected to ethnic instrument with. In 1854, with call of  these drums and Sarjom leaf (Sarjom gira) the great Santal hul consisting about 85,000 people under the leadership of Sido,Kanhu, Chand,Bhairo and Phulo, Jhano was organized against the oppression of  British and local money-lenders .

These instruments are the symbols of their ethnic identity.
Tiriyo and Banam is considered to be the most important musical instruments in Santals which evokes feeling of nostalgia in their mind.


The Santal are Musician, dancers and artist by brith par excellence. Their artistic creativity is great which exhibits their relation with nature. During the festival the  belles of the community are pulled  attracted by the loud drumming, resembling thunder towards the akhra where all gathers . They come dressed in their fineries, adorned with flowers. Taking strides with drum the young men come forward and then the dance commences in two rows, their arms interlinking in pairs. The rows surge forward like rhythmic waves and then recede with supple footwork and swaying heads and bodies. The boys in the row opposite play on flutes, drums, and large cymbals and sing songs in perfect harmony. There are certain rounds of dance, after which women sings songs and the men playing tamak and tumdak also sings the song with context to song sung by women. 

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