This describes the kinship between human
being and animals. According to this,
God created two birds ‘Has’ and ‘Hasil’- out of his hair when
all of Earth was covered with water, before the dry land appeared. The birds, which
flew below the sun and above the Earth, were able to connect Heaven to Earth
because they could operate in both domains.
They built the nest on the
earth and laid their egg, they
are cosmic eggs, out of which two creatures; human male and human female are
born - Pilchu Haram and pilchu Burhi. Both these myths creation of world and
mankind refer the birds and animal as ancestors. Thus Santal concept of life
begins with animals. The first human couple grew up in ‘Hihiri Pipiri’.
After the creation of Earth, the male and
female human being gave birth to seven sons and seven daughters. The children
later married among themselves, and each couple became the ancestors of a
Santal clan. Later, five more groups formed, for a total of twelve clans. Each
of these clans has ‘totem’ a plant or animal with which member of the clan
share a sacred link.A total 12 clans is found among the Santals. They areHansdak',
Murmu, Hembrom, Soren, Kisku, Tudu, Marndi, Baske, Besra, Chonre, Puria and
Bedea. An affiliation or sacred contact is believed to link
these clans and their respective totems. Therefore, each of the names of
clans is derived from either from the plants or animals species.
Creation of human being according to Santal
clan from hans( Hans means goose and dak means water) has highest social status
because their name has derived from the name of their clan from first
ancestors. It is significant that bird is goose, because geease walk on Earth
and build their nests there but they fly in the sky.
order are ‘Murmu’, whose totem is Niglai or antelope. The ancestor of this clan
hunted the antelope. The antelope was the first animal to be sacrificed by
Santals. Murmu serves as priest. The all remaining clan totems are the
kingfisher, betel nuts, grass(traders), a star constellation(soldiers),
owl(musicians), stale rice(cooks),pigeon, sheep and lizard. Santals do not hunt
or eat the animal of their totem as totem animals & nature are considered
members of their clan.