Thursday, 18 April 2013

Santhali Language

                                Santhali Language


Santali is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austroasiatic, related to Ho andMundari.
It is spoken by around 6.2 million people in IndiaBangladeshBhutan andNepal, although most of its speakers live in India, in the states of Jharkhand,AssamBiharOdishaTripura, and West Bengal.[1]
The language has its own script, known as Ol Chiki[2] and a variant of the Latin alphabet is used, too.



Founder of Ol-Chiki Script


Pandit Raghunath Murmu ( May 5, 1905, DandboseOdisha State, India – February 1, 1982) was the creator of the writing known variously as Ol Chiki script, Ol Cemet' ("language of writing"), Ol Ciki, Ol, and sometimes as the Santali alphabet, in 1925, used for writing the Santali language of India and neighbouring countries. He was also a spiritual Guru for Santhals.He wrote "Sarna Dhorom Hitlay ar bang HITAL".He preached "Sarna Dhorom". He also worked a lot for safeguarding tribal interests in Jharkhand.
                                                                      He was born in a village, called (Dahardih) Dandbose, on 5 May 1905 in theMayurbhanj district of Odisha, then part of British India. He was a school teacher at [Badam Talia) near Rairangpur, in Odisha .

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Santali has 21 consonants, not counting the 10 aspirated stops which occur almost only in Indo-Aryan loanwords and are given in parentheses in the table below.
BilabialAlveolarRetroflexPalatalVelarGlottal
Stopsvoicelessp (ph)t (th)ʈ (ʈh)c (ch)k
voicedb (bh)d (dh)ɖ (ɖh)ɟ (ɟh)
<j jh>
g (gh)
Fricativessh
Nasalsmnɲŋ
Trillr
Flapɽ
Laterall
Glideswj <y>


Vowels

Santali has eight non-nasal and six nasal vowels.
FrontCentralBack
Highi ĩu ũ
Mid-higheə ə̃o
Mid-lowɛ ɛ̃ɔ ɔ̃
Lowa ã
There are numerous diphthongs.



Pronouns

The personal pronouns in Santali distinguish inclusive and exclusive first person and anaphoric and demonstrative third person.
SingularDualPlural
First personExclusiveɘliɲalɛ
Inclusivealaŋabo
Second personamabenapɛ
Third personAnaphoricac'ɘkinako
Demonstrativeuniunkinonko


ol-chiki in capital letters and in numericals






source:wikipidia.org






Santhali Culture and Society


Johar everybody,
                                      We think this post will be very useful for you in getting knowledge about santhali people.
The largest tribes of India is the Santhal Tribe. This tribe habitation is mainly in the states of West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand and Assam. They belong to the Pre -Aryan period and were the great fighters during the British regime in India. A bantam bunch com

prising of the Santhals can also be traced back to Bangladesh. Santhals were brave and courgeous people who wagged war against the permanent settlement of Lord Cornwallis in 1855.

                                       In 1850 Santhals hero Sidhu had accumulated around 10 thousand Santhals to run parallel government against the British government. The first Santhal leader who raised weapons against the Britishers in 1789 was Baba Tilka Majhi. According to the earlier census their population is around 49,000. The scientists have conjectured that the individuals of the Santhal in Jharkhand had the Proto Australoids as their ancestors and these so-called Proto Australoids had embarked upon a journey towards the eastern frontier of India and eventually settled there. Many call them as "the tribes at extreme".
                                                      
                                                                     Culture
                                                                                     
                                                    A Traditional Tribe Dance of Santhali

Santhal Tribes enjoy and love dancing. Dancing is one activity which is in their blood. It forms an important part of the Santhals fairs and festivals. Santhals relax themselves with the light music music and dance after the long day hard work. Santhal women dress up themselves in the red bordered white sari and dance in the line sequence. Apart from dance, Santhals have fun & enjoy& also play great music using Tirio (bamboo flute with the seven holes), an open chest( korom), a short neck(hotok)and a head( bohok), Phet banam (a fretless stringed instrument with three or four strings), Tumdak, Tamak, Junko and Singa. Dhodro banam (which consists of belly called lac covered with an animal skin on which rests the bridge(sadam, lit, horse), Santhal Tribal Communtiy have no temples of their own and they even do not worship any idols.
Santhals follow the Sarna religion. Their God and Goddess are Marangburu, Jaheraera, and Manjhi. The most amazing fact about Santhal is that they pay respect to the ghosts and spirits like Kal Sing, Lakchera, and Beudarang etc. Santhals have village priests known as the Naiki and shaman Ujha. In this community animal sacrifices to the Gods is common to appease the Gods and Goddesses.

                                                               

                                                                   Judicial

The judiciary system is well organised in traditional manner. It manages and gets solution to the problem inside the community. They make every effort to solve it among themselves within in the society. The Santhal Tribe head is called as Manjhi Hadam. He is considered as the chief of the judicial, executive and other function of society. Manjhi is helped by various others like Jagmangjhi, Jagparanik, Naike and Gudit who work in the other fields in diverse areas.
                                    

                                                                                                                            source:indianmirror.com 

Sohray : Santhali Festival


                   
Sohray: A Santhal festival


Sohray is  one of the biggest Festival among Santhal tribes. It is celebrated when the plantation of crops get done. They celebrate it as the festival named “Sohray” . This festival is celebrated among many communities but a little bit different in the Santhal community. It is because their animal helps them to grow crops in field. Therefore tribes are acknowledging them by this festival.

This festival lasts for three days.
It starts from each and every house. The first day they worship to their ancestors and bongas (sacred spirit). Worship is done in the field.
A egg is placed over the Got tandi where all the animals are taken towards and finally by whom egg is scrambled  the respected animals are being chosen in this way and the owner of that animal now got to pay Handi tukuj (a type of drink by tribal’s made up of rice or can be called "Rice Bear") to villagers in coming year.
Dangiri Khuntaw(Bull fighting by santhal tribe)


since then night people awake the animal by singing and dancing from door to door. It is being continued till  third day.
This practice is called “Gayi Jagaw”



2nd day of sohray people worships their cow-shed. They bring some crops of rice from their field that they have cultivated as it is used in worshiping. After worshiping they tie those plants to animal's horn. And in their worship, Handi is being addressed to their god and ancestors in the name of sohray with praising for everybodys happiness and for a good health for their animals.

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third day is being  celebrated as the last day by khuntaw(this is a practice in which bull is tied up to picket and one man have to fight having the dry leather against bull.It makes the bull angry and result the leather toughly hitted by a angry bull by his horn. This process is repeated over three or more times depending upon the aggressiveness of bull.during this fight a tribal song is being sung over there by playing Tamak and tumda(A tribal music instruments). Having made all this practice getting tired they all finally go to Akhra where they all dance together sing together.

Sunday, 7 April 2013

Santhali Mp3,Songs

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